Relationship between Coronavirus Disease and Erythrocyte Morphology Parameters
Keywords:COVID-19, Microcytosis, Macrocytosis, Hypochromia, Hyperchromia
Background: To determine the rates of Microcytosis (%), Macrocytosis (%), Hypochromia (%), and Hyperchromia (%) as erythrocyte morphological parameters in COVID-19 infection, using a new-generation hematological autoanalyser, and to evaluate the use of these parameters for diagnostic purposes.
Material and Method: This retrospective study included 66 patients (F:41, M:25) with COVID-19 infection confirmed by real-time PCR test positivity, and 67 age and gender-matched healthy individuals (F:40, M:27) as a control group. The COVID-19 patients were separated into two groups as those with pulmonary infiltration (n=35, F/M:20/15) and those without (n=31, F/M:21/10). The hematological parameters measured on the autoanalyzer were analyzed and compared between the groups.
Results: Age and gender distribution were similar in both study groups (p=0.619, p=0.457). The White Blood Cell (p=0.040) Neutrophil (p<0.001), Lymphocyte (p<0.001), and Platelet (p <0.001) levels were statistically significantly lower in the COVID-19 patients compared to the control group and CRP levels were significantly increased (p<0.001). In the comparisons of the erythrocyte morphology parameters, Microcytosis % (p=0.011) was significantly greater, and Macrocytosis % (p=0.009) and Hypochromia % (p=0.032) were significantly lower in the COVID-19 patients. An increase was determined in Hyperchromia %, but not at a statistically significant level (p=0.059).
Conclusion: From the erythrocyte morphological findings determined with the new-generation devices, the Microcytosis percentage was determined to be significantly increased in COVID-19-positive patients, and this parameter was found to have 78.79% sensitivity and 50.75% specificity in the differentiation of COVID-19 patients from healthy individuals
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